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BIRMINGHAM, Ala. – Former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice has joined two exclusive golf clubs in Alabama.

Rice is a native of Birmingham and has family there, though she does not own a home in the city. Chief of Staff Colby Cooper says the golf memberships at Greystone Golf & Country Club and Shoal Creek golf club are part of an effort to reach out to citizens of her home state.

Shoal Creek came under fire for having no black members in 1990 as it prepared to host a major tournament.

Rice has visited the Birmingham area twice in the past four months. She was in town last week researching a book about her parents and found time for golf at Shoal Creek with club president Bobby Luckie.

Rice is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution public policy research group at Stanford University.