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Stanley Nelson’s critically acclaimed documentary, The Black Panthers: Vanguard Of The Revolution, aired on PBS last night and quickly became the number one trending topic on Twitter.

While the film wasn’t without its controversy (much like the subject matter), it is a powerful chronicle of the Party’s enduring, often misunderstood legacy.

It’s impossible to break down an entire history of the Black Panther Party in one documentary, much less in one post, but here are ten powerful, fascinating, surprising, and devastating takeaways from the film.


The Black Panther Party, originally the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, was established in 1966 by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

The Panthers’ tag line, “We serve the people,” is exemplified by their Ten-Point Program, which promotes equality, education, freedom, and employment. They demanded an end to police brutality and the murder of Black people.


While Newton and Seale were the creators, according to Nelson’s documentary, Eldridge Cleaver, a highly praised author and essayist, helped bring a mainstream legitimacy to the Party when he joined in 1966.

Cleaver was known for his magnetic presence and often-incendiary language. The film showed a clip of Cleaver challenging then-California governor Ronald Reagan to a duel. He told a crowd it would be to the death – or at least until Reagan said “Uncle Eldridge.”


In 1967, Huey P. Newton fatally shot officer John Frey in “self-defense.” Although details of the incident were sketchy, Frey died from four gunshot wounds, while Newton was left with a bullet wound to the abdomen. Newton was arrested while hospitalized, infamously handcuffed to the bed, and placed on heavily armed guard watch. Newton’s arrest prompted “Free Huey” protests, which exploded around the nation.


The Panthers, made up of mostly young men and women, dressed in their signature afros, berets, and jackets and became a phenomenon for their self-professed “swag.” With guns in hand and their bold declarations for Black beauty, the Panther look became an instant phenomenon.

Even the “ugly” among them took on a certain appeal, former Panther Akua Njeri said: “In the party it was just something that gave them this tremendous sex appeal.”

Late activist Julian Bond further emphasized the look: “The Panthers didn’t invent it, but they made urban Black beautiful.”


The Panthers’ breakfast program was inspired by data that found children are less attentive when they don’t eat a balanced meal in the morning. The Party then gained the respect of the community, leading to increased membership.

By 1969, more than 20,000 children in 19 cities were receiving full breakfasts before going to school.

Other Panthers social programs included free health clinics, senior citizen protection programs, prison outreach programs, and more.


Despite the enduring image of masculine figures toting guns and wearing berets, the majority of the Panther Party members were women. And although they preached equality, women were often objectified. So, in an effort to promote this aforementioned equality, men and women frequently switched roles. Women were given guns and men were sent to the kitchen to prepare meals for the breakfast program.


The Panthers had a firm grasp and understanding of the media and how to manipulate it. The Black Panther newsletter was described by former member Omar Barbour as “the lifeblood of the party.” One of the deepest connections forged was with the artwork. The infamous depiction of a police officer portrayed as a pig premiered on the cover of the publication.


Bobby Hutton was the first Panther gunned down by police in 1968 following a standoff. He was 17 years old at the time and had been the Party’s first recruit. Cleaver was also wounded in the standoff, which garnered national media attention. More than 2,000 people attended his funeral, including Marlon Brando and James Baldwin.

Later, as tensions between the party and the FBI escalated, more Panthers would die at the hands of police. Perhaps most notable among these was the death of 21-year-old Fred Hampton.


Following the deaths of Hutton and Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1968, BPP recruitment was up more than ever and the Party became home to a number of rising stars. Fred Hampton, an incredibly gifted speaker, longtime activist, and powerful leader, was among the most dynamic. This came at a huge price, as he was targeted by FBI director J. Edgar Hoover and other U.S. government officials who deliberately painted the Party as terrorists and sought to stop the rise of a “Black messiah”-type leader. In Hampton, they saw that leader they so feared.

Hampton united divergent groups, including Puerto Rican group Young Lords, poor White group the Young Hillbillies, and more. Hampton was successfully building his own veritable rainbow coalition and the FBI saw that as an incredibly deep threat.

In December 1969, with a takedown partially organized by informant (and Hampton bodyguard) William O’Neal, who provided blueprints and layouts to the Feds, Hampton was executed in his sleep. Authorities claimed they were attacked by the “vicious” Panthers. Yet, only one shot was fired from a Panther gun, which went off when Mark Clark was fatally shot.


Hampton’s death was part of a government-illustrated takedown of the Panthers, whom J. Edgar Hoover declared “the biggest threat to the nation.” Authorities were encouraged to go after the Panthers’ personal lives in an attempt to destroy them, and to get creative in their tactics. Through informants, the FBI also supplied the Panthers with guns and then turned around and told local police that they were armed illegally with the sole intent to kill police.

This continued until the ultimate division of the Party, following the release of Newton from jail and his dissent from Cleaver’s faction. Fueled by the FBI’s creation of a culture of paranoia, the division between Cleaver and Newton ultimately contributed to the decline in the Party’s popularity, according to Nelson’s film.

It’s difficult to include all of the notable moments from the documentary, as there were so many worth mentioning. This included the Panther 21, Bobby Seale and Elaine Brown’s run for Oakland office, the establishment of the international chapter of the Party, and more.

What were the standout moments for you?


10 Things We Learned About The Black Panther Party From “Vanguard Of The Revolution”  was originally published on